Placement of the main knots and units in a motor compartment
Description of a design
On the car the petrol, four-cycle, four-cylinder, line, eight-valve engine, with the top arrangement of the camshaft is installed. A power supply system – carburetor. Operating procedure of cylinders: 1–3–4–2, counting – from a pulley of a bent shaft.
The VAZ-2103 engine differs from the VAZ-2106 engine in the smaller diameter of cylinders (76 mm against 79) and, respectively, the block of cylinders, the size of pistons and piston rings, and also laying of a head of the block of cylinders. Block heads at both engines are identical and their details are interchanged. Cylinders of engines are located vertically in one row and are united in the block. From above on it the block head, general for all cylinders, is established. From below the block of cylinders is closed by the steel stamped pallet which at the same time serves as capacity for oil.
Pistons have two compression and one oil scraper ring. The bent shaft rotates in five support in the block of cylinders. From a pulley on its forward end klinoremenny transfer gives to rotation the generator and the pump of cooling liquid located on the right side of the engine.
In a forward part of the engine there is a drive of the camshaft and the roller of the drive of auxiliary units: distributor of ignition, fuel and oil pumps. The drive is carried out by a two-row vtulochno-roller chain.
On the right side of the engine, except the generator, the final collector, a starter and the inlet pipeline with the carburetor and the air filter are placed. On the left side there is an oil filter.
The three-point scheme of a suspension bracket is applied to installation of the engine assembled with the transmission and coupling. Two forward support are on both sides of the block of cylinders and fasten to a cross-piece of a forward suspension bracket of the car. The back support is located on the transmission and leans on the cross-piece fixed under a body floor.
Elastic pillows of forward support consist of rubber with privulkanizirovanny steel washers and bolts of fastening. For increase in rigidity of support in the central opening of pillows there are springs leaning on the isolating rings, and for mitigation of blows in springs rubber-metal buffers are located. Pillows fasten to arms by means of intermediate plates. The right pillow is protected from heating from a reception pipe of mufflers by the protection cover.
The back support also rubber-metal, it consists of three steel plates with the rubber dividing them. The average plate fastens to the transmission, and external – to a cross-piece of a back engine mount. Between regiments of a cross-piece the steel remote plugs protecting regiments from deformation when tightening bolts of fastening are put.
The block of cylinders is manufactured by a casting method of special high-strength cast iron. Openings under cylinders are chiseled directly in the block and additional inserts (sleeves) in cylinders are not applied. For receiving a special profile and purity of a surface cylinders honingutsya. On diameter cylinders are subdivided into 5 classes through 0,01 mm designated by the Latin letters A, B, C, D and E. The class of each cylinder is marked on the lower plane of the block of cylinders.
Openings under radical bearings of a bent shaft are chiseled assembled with covers of bearings. Therefore they are not interchanged among themselves, with covers of other blocks of cylinders. Not to mix a cover, on them marking becomes. Covers of bearings fasten to the block of cylinders самоконтрящимися bolts which replacement by any others is inadmissible.
The roller of the drive of auxiliary units rotates in two plugs pressed in the block of cylinders. The forward plug steel-aluminum, and back – ceramic-metal, bronzografitny. In spare parts plugs of the nominal and repair sizes with the internal diameter reduced by 0,3 mm are delivered.
Pistons are cast from aluminum alloy. The external surface of the piston for improvement of its prirabatyvayemost to walls of the cylinder is covered with a thin layer of tin. For compensation of uneven thermal expansion the skirt of the piston has irregular shape. On height it conic, and in cross section oval. Therefore it is necessary to measure diameter of the piston only in the plane, perpendicular to a piston finger and at distance of 52,4 mm from the piston bottom.
On outer diameter pistons (as well as cylinders) are subdivided into five classes: And, B, C, D and E through 0,01 mm, and on diameter of an opening under a piston finger – on three categories through 0,004 mm. The category is specified by paint at an end face (the first – blue, the second – green, the third – red). The piston class (a Latin letter) and category (figure) are marked on the piston bottom.
In spare parts pistons of the classes A, C, E which are quite enough for selection of the piston to any cylinder as pistons and cylinders are broken into classes with some overlapping of the sizes are delivered.
The opening under a piston finger is displaced from a symmetry axis on 5 mm to the right side of the engine. Therefore on the piston there is a tag in the form of a letter P for the correct orientation of the piston in the cylinder. The tag has to be turned towards a forward part of the engine.
Since 1986 pistons of the repair sizes for all models of engines VAZ are manufactured with the outer diameter increased by 0,4 and 0,8 mm. Till 1986 pistons of the repair sizes for engines 2103 and 2106 were issued with increase on 0,4; 0,7 and 1,00 mm.
Pistons of engines 2103 and 2106 differ only with the size (diameter).
Piston rings are made of cast iron. The top compression ring with the barrel-shaped chromeplated external surface. Lower compression ring of scraper type, fosfatirovanny.
Piston fingers are pressed in the top head of a rod and freely rotate in piston lugs. On outer diameter fingers are injured into three categories through 0,004 mm. The category of a finger is marked at its end face in the corresponding color: the 1st – blue, the 2nd – green and the 3rd – red.
Rod steel, shod. The lower head of a rod demountable, in it connecting rods are established. The rod is processed together with a cover and therefore they are not interchanged with covers of other rods. That at assembly not to mix a cover of rods, on a rod and its cover (sideways) there is a brand of number of cylinders in which they are established. At assembly of figure on a rod and a cover have to be on one party.
The bent shaft is cast from high-strength cast iron and has five basic (radical) necks tempered by current of high frequency on depth of 2-3 mm. In the back end of a bent shaft there is a nest where the bearing of the leading shaft of the transmission is inserted. Lubricant channels in necks of a bent shaft are closed by the cap-type caps which are pressed and for reliability are fullered in three points.
For extension of service life of a bent shaft the possibility of regrinding of necks of a bent shaft at wear or damage of their surfaces is provided. Grinding diameters of necks decrease on 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1,00 mm.
Axial movement of a bent shaft is limited to two persistent half rings installed in the block of cylinders on both sides of the back radical bearing. From the forward party of the bearing the steel-aluminum half ring, and with back – ceramic-metal is put (yellow color).
Inserts of radical and conrod bearings thin-walled, bimetallic, steel-aluminum. Inserts for the 1, 2, 4 and 5 radical bearings have a flute (since 1987 the lower inserts of these bearings are established without flute) on an internal surface. Inserts of the central radical bearing differ from other inserts in lack of a flute on an internal surface and bigger width. All inserts of conrod bearings without flutes, identical and interchangeable. Repair inserts are made the increased thickness under the necks of a bent shaft reduced on 0,25; 0,5; 0,75 and 1 mm.
The flywheel is cast from cast iron and has a steel napressovanny gear wreath for launch of the engine a starter. Flywheels are interchangeable as are balanced separately from a bent shaft. The flywheel with a bent shaft the forward bearing of the leading shaft of the transmission is aligned.
The flywheel fastens to a flange of a bent shaft six самоконтрящимися bolts under which one general washer is enclosed. To replace these bolts any other it is inadmissible.